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Application of preservative sorbic acid in food processing industry

Application of preservative sorbic acid in food processing industry

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[Abstract]:
Withtheincreasinglysophisticatedprocessingoffoods,foodpreservativeshavebecomeanindispensableroleinthedevelopmentoftheindustry.Inordertoensurethatthepackagedfoodcanbebetterstoredandstored,theapplicatio

With the increasingly sophisticated processing of foods,  food preservatives have become an indispensable role in the development of the industry. In order to ensure that the packaged food can be better stored and stored, the application of preservatives also ushered in a huge development market.

One of the most modern preservatives in the food industry is sorbic acid, which is chemically similar to food. Sorbic acid is extremely effective against many microorganisms, in addition to its ease of use and cost-effectiveness. Moreover, the preserved product does not affect its flavor and taste. Sorbic acid and its potassium and calcium salts (E200, E202 and E203, respectively) have been approved for use in a large number of foods worldwide.
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Sorbic acid is unsaturated hexacarboxylic acid, colorless needle crystal or white crystalline powder,  tasteless and odorless. Potassium sorbate is a potassium salt of sorbic acid,  a white , almost odorless powder, or granular, so the dust is extremely low. Calcium sorbate is a calcium salt of sorbic acid , an almost odorless white powder.
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Sorbic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid, similar to those naturally occurring in food and being decomposed and utilized in the human body.  The daily allowance ADI is 25 mg/kg. Sorbic acid is  therefore considered to be related to food. Under the supervision of international authoritative organizations, researchers have conducted a lot of scientific research on sorbic acid, which proves that sorbic acid and its salts are physiologically inert and not harmful to health.
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Sorbic acid and its salts do not react with other ingredients of foods and do not have the ability to form complexes. Therefore, the use of sorbic acid does not affect the biological effectiveness of minerals such as minerals.
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There is almost no allergic reaction caused by sorbic acid. The scientific literature shows that sorbic acid is by far the most sensitive of all preservatives.

  Sorbic acid (E200) and potassium sorbate ( E200 ) are approved as preservatives in a large number of foods worldwide. Calcium sorbate (E203) has been approved for use in some countries. In the United States, sorbic acid, potassium sorbate , and calcium sorbate are classified as GRAS , which is generally recognized as safe.  This definition emphasizes the fact that sorbic acid and sorbates are both physiologically inert.
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The CTFA (Cosmetics and Perfumery Association) in the US classifies sorbic acid and sorbate as safe products for use in cosmetics . The EC Cosmetics Directive and many national regulations approve the use of sorbic acid and sorbate salts as preservatives in cosmetics. In many countries, sorbic acid and sorbates are approved for use in pharmaceuticals and animal feed.
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Antibacterial effect of sorbic acid and its salts
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Sorbic acid is an acidic preservative that inhibits bacteria, mold, and yeast. As with other organic acid preservatives,  the effect of sorbic acid varies with the pH of the product. The lower the pH of the product, ie, the greater the acidity, the greater the effectiveness of preservation, and thus the amount of preservative required.  The less. The same applies to sorbates. It is just a form of sorbic acid.
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This acid is formed from sorbates in the acidic pH range. Its mildew effect diminishes with increasing pH. The antibacterial effect is good at pH 3, and there is still antibacterial effect at pH 6, but the required concentration is large , and the general minimum concentration  (MIC) at pH 6 is more than 0.2%. Sorbic acid inhibits biological growth and preservation by inhibiting the dehydrogenase system in microorganisms. Sorbic acid has good antiseptic effect on jams , beverages , and noodles with low pH,  but for foods with higher pH , it is often necessary to add acid to lower the pH, and then use sorbic acid to achieve the antiseptic effect. This has an adverse effect on the flavor, water retention, elasticity and natural quality of foods.
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Application of sorbic acid and its salts in meat products and aquatic products
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Fish products
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For salty fish, potassium sorbate can be added to salt water or mixed with dry salt to add to fish products. Short-term preservation of foods (such as fish fillets, scallops and squid fillets) can be effectively and permanently protected against bacterial contamination by the addition of potassium sorbate or sorbic acid, even during shelf-life and open packaging.
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Sorbic acid and potassium sorbate can effectively prevent mold and yeast from corroding air-dried and smoked fish. For example, pickled herring stems are treated with 2%-4% sorbic acid and salt.
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Dried squid can be impregnated or sprayed with 5%-10% potassium sorbate solution to prevent subsequent mold corrosion. Before or after the smoked fish is dried, a 5%-10% potassium sorbate solution may be sprayed to inhibit the growth of the mold. The final product concentration should be 0.05%-0.15%. By adding 0.4% -0.8% powdered sorbic acid, the shelf life of the shrimp can be extended.
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Meat and sausage products
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Potassium sorbate has obvious antiseptic and antibacterial effect than sodium benzoate, especially it has a strong anti-mildew effect. Fresh pork and fresh chicken meat soaked in potassium sorbate can extend the shelf life and have no adverse effects on their organoleptic properties. The addition of potassium sorbate to salted bacon products can reduce the sodium nitrite content, which reduces the potential risk of carcinogenic nitrosamine formation. At the same time, there is no adverse effect on the color and aroma of the product. Dry sausages, smoked ham and dried meat and similar products can be soaked with 5%-20% potassium sorbate solution to prevent mold corrosion.
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Fungal growth on the casing can be prevented by adding 0.2% to 0.4% of sorbic acid or potassium sorbate. For certain Frankfurt boiled sausages (with or without casings) 0.05%-0.08% sorbic acid may be added during the slicing process, or the intestine may be surface treated with a 5% potassium sorbate solution to prevent mold growth. .
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Synergy
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Since potassium sorbate is an acidic type of preservative, it is recommended to use organic acids such as citric acid and lactic acid salts. These organic acids not only have their own antiseptic effect, but also can adjust the pH value. The antiseptic effect of potassium sorbate is sustained.
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Potassium sorbate preservatives are mainly sorbic acid, which can inhibit the action of dehydrogenases in microorganisms such as molds and inhibit the growth of molds and the like. However, when the mold contamination is serious or has begun to corrupt, the mold can use potassium sorbate as a culture medium, so that sorbic acid does not play any role. Therefore, the addition of potassium sorbate is only one way to extend the shelf life. The preservation of meat products is also related to the temperature and water activity of the raw materials, and is closely related to the control of external and internal factors. (Source: China Food Additives Application Network)